The Elements of Dance

Unit Overview

This unit plan was revised from the Ontario Ministry of Education Course Profiles written in 1999.

This unit could be used as an introductory unit to the Grade 9, 10, or 11 Open Dance courses. It would also be useful to elementary teachers who can select age appropriate activities to teach the various elements of dance.

Students will explore and demonstrate their understanding of the basic elements of dance – body, space, time, energy, and relationship – and will combine them into sequences. Students will improvise, experiment with and develop these elements. They will demonstrate knowledge of appropriate conventions as they relate to the classroom, and to being performers and audience members. Throughout the unit, students must apply safety principles in the dance environment and in the execution of these movement skills. They will observe and identify a broad spectrum of dance as well as begin to reflect on their own work and the work of others.

Big Ideas/Guiding Questions for Unit

  • How can an awareness of movement enhance personal dance vocabulary?
  • In what ways are various world dance forms similar? Is there a universal language of dance?

Learning Goals for Unit

  • Demonstrate the ability to create unique body movements
  • Explore how the body can be used to represent various shapes and sizes.
  • Demonstrate an understanding body and shapes with movement.
  • Demonstrate the ability to move the body through space
  • Demonstrate the ability to explore rhythm in movement
  • Demonstrate an understanding of movement dynamics
  • Demonstrate the ability to relate to other dancers and objects
  • Explore the elements of dance using various stimuli
  • Demonstrate the application of the elements of dance in a composition
  • Demonstrate an understanding of safety issues in dance class; character traits needed in dance class.

Materials

Assessment 

Assessment for Learning involves learners receiving a considerable amount of descriptive feedback during their learning. It allows the learner to adjust what he or she is doing in order to improve (Making Classroom Assessment Work, 2007).

  • Application of knowledge and skills to the rehearsal process
  • Approach to class work and the creative process
  • Classroom protocol, safe practices
  • Application of technique, composition, and performance skills to tasks
  • Creative problem solving activities
  • Application of concepts to movement studies
  • Submission of a dance scrapbook, written assignments, reflective journals, e-journal, portfolio, or blogs
  • Teacher and peer observation and feedback

Assessment of Learning is checking to see what has been learned to date. It is the evaluation that results are often summarized into marks, scores or grades (Making Classroom Assessment Work, 2007).

  • Evaluation of the creative process
  • Evaluation: Performance skills - culminating activity
  • Evaluation: Composition skills – culminating activity

Assessment as Learning is about reflecting on the evidence of learning. This is the part of assessment where students and teachers set learning goals, share learning interventions and success criteria, and evaluate their learning through dialogue and self and peer assessment.

  • Self / peer reflections
  • Critical analysis of the creative process

Lesson 1: Defining Dance

In this lesson, students explore, define and expand their understanding of dance. By observing a variety of examples, students will begin to perceive the role dance plays in their lives and in the world around them. Students will write and develop personal expectations and goals for themselves within the dance course.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the ability to create unique body movements
  • Demonstrate an understanding of safety issues in dance class; character traits needed in dance class.

Materials

  • Visual examples highlighting the diversity of dance: historical, cultural, media, forms and styles (pictures, video clips, books, etc.)
  • Video player

Minds On (Approximately 20 minutes)

Introduction & Discussion

  • Students explore, define and expand their understanding of dance by observing a variety of examples in their lives and the in the world around them (pictures, video clips, books, etc.)
  • Students write a short definition of what they think dance is and then share aloud.  Facilitate a discussion and show the wide range of possible definitions.
  • Students discuss the following points:
    • What is your first memory of dancing?
    • Why do you dance?
    • Where and when do you dance?
    • Why do people dance?
    • What are some of the issues concerning dance?
    • How do you and others feel about the issues, concerns, etc.?
  • Introduce visual examples highlighting the diversity of dance: historical, theatrical and globally diverse forms and styles, and discuss as necessary.
  • Students reflect and write their expectations of the course and for themselves in a (journal, blog, web site, electronic diary, scrapbook etc.) that will be used throughout the course.

Action! (Approximately 45 minutes)

Getting Acquainted - Name/Movement Team Building Activity

  • Students scatter around the room
  • Students independently create a movement to accompany their name – for example: “Kelly” accompanied by right arm pushed forward and swinging down
  • In a circle, students take turns sharing their name and their movement aloud while everyone replicates
  • In groups of four: teach each other names and movements and put them into an interesting sequence
  • Rehearse the sequence so that the group can perform it in a line or another formation of their choice
  • Combine two groups, have students teach one another and rehearse the 8 movement sequence in a line or formation of their choice
  • Students perform their sequences for the class

Consolidation (Approximately 10 minutes)

  • Teacher explains traditional practices surrounding dance class attire, personal hygiene, safety factors and daily preparation and warm-up.
  • Teacher explains the structure of course and assessment/evaluation criteria.

Lesson 2: Foundation Element - BODY

Description

A variety of visual stimuli will be presented to explore and expand students’ creative thinking skills and physical movement vocabulary. Students will apply problem solving and cooperative learning skills to create a short dance study based on the element of Body.

Learning Goals

  • Explore how the body can be used to represent various shapes and sizes.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of body and shapes with movement.

Materials

  • Collect a variety of visual stimuli depicting the human body in a variety of shapes.

Minds On (Approximately 15 minutes)

  • Students observe a number of visual stimuli (pictures, objects) that depict the human body in a wide range of shapes.
  • Direct the focus to the:
    • body parts involved in creating the shapes,
    • shapes themselves,
    • sizes of the shapes.
  • Students verbalize their observations and reconstruct the shapes with their bodies.

Action! (Approximately 30 minutes)

The Shape and Size of Things

  • Introduce dance vocabulary to identify aspects of shapes observed, i.e., flexed and/or pointed feet, arms in second position, turn-out and parallel positions.
  • Lead students through a guided movement exploration using verbal cues of a variety of shapes (i.e., square, circle, rectangle, mountain, cloud, teacup, pencil.)
  • Students move through the explorations independently, with a partner, in a group and with the whole class.
  • Repeat the guided exploration adding directions to change the size of each shape.
  • Students move through the explorations independently, with a partner, in a group and as a whole class.
  • Assign a creative movement exploration in small groups:
    • students create three group pictures using three different shapes and three different sizes within each picture
    • students create a movement phrase linking the three different shapes.
  • Students share their work with the class

Moving Shapes

  • Lead students through a guided movement exploration of moving shapes using verbal cues of a variety of action words, i.e., twist, shake, swing, explode, melt, ooze, collapse, freeze, sway, suspend, etc.
  • Students move through the explorations independently, with a partner, in a group and as a whole class.
  • Repeat the guided exploration adding two or more actions to be explored simultaneously.
  • Guide students to explore moving shapes following verbal image cues (e.g., your moving shape is caught in a windstorm; your moving shape is out in the freezing cold and the temperature is dropping; your moving shape is being dropped into a large vat of caramel.)
  • Call out a number by which students quickly group, verbally cueing a concrete moving shape for the group to form, i.e., two students form an eggbeater, four students form a dragon.
  • Students create and memorize shape, location in space and group members (#1)
  • Call out a different number and a new moving shape to cue students to rapidly change to a different group.
  • Students quickly create and memorize the shape, location in space and group members (#2)
  • Call out three additional numbers and moving shapes
  • Students quickly create and memorize each new shape with its new location and new group members (#3-5)
  • Call out the numbers previously cued without naming the moving shape giving sufficient time to recreate.
  • Students must quickly recall the number, the location in space, the group members and the moving shape allocated to the number called.

Consolidation (Approximately 20 minutes)

Dance Study #1 – Body (Shape)

  • Assign a creative movement exploration for small groups with a set time (e.g. develop a dance study by creating three different moving shapes; shapes must be organized into a sequence. Transitions between each moving shape must be seamless.)
  • Students create the dance study.
  • Introduce fundamental roles of students as presenters and audience members and facilitate a sharing and observational session.
  • Students share their work with the class.
  • Lead the class in a guided observational discussion session
  • Suggestions for consolidation activities are as follows:
    • Community circle discussion
    • Journal reflection

Lessons 3: Foundation Element - SPACE

Description

Auditory and visual stimuli will be presented to explore and expand students’ creative thinking skills and physical movement vocabulary. Students will apply problem solving and cooperative learning skills to create a dance study based on the element of Space.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the ability to move the body through space

Materials

  • blank paper and coloured pencils
  • videocamera, blank tapes, memory cards,
  • TV/Projector

Minds On (Approximately 10 minutes)

Levels

  • Lead students through a guided movement exploration using verbal cues of movement directions (i.e. over, under, through, across, open out, toward, away, rise, sink, side, diagonal, around, forward, backward). 
  • Repeat actions with directions changing speed.
  • Ask students to change their level to low, middle, and then to high.

Action! (Approximately 40 minutes)

Floor Patterns

  • Introduce the concept of floor patterns by guiding a brainstorming session on straight and curved line shapes.
  • Students brainstorm and draw on paper:
    • Straight-line shapes, letters and numbers on paper (e.g. straight line, square, triangle, rectangle, octagon, pentagon, zig zag, numbers 1, 4, 7, etc., letters A, E, H, M,V, Z).
    • Curved-line shapes, letters and numbers on paper, (e.g. curved line, circle, figure eight, spiral in and out, heart, etc., numbers 0, 2, 3, 6, 8, letters C, O, S).
    • Shapes with combinations of straight and curved lines, (e.g. heart, half-moon, cylinder, cone, ice cream cone, numbers 2,5,9, letters B, D, G, J, P, Q, R, U, etc.)
  • Hand out a blank sheet of paper for student to visualize and design a floor pattern. Each design is to have a beginning and ending point and to include one straight-line shape, one curved-line shape and one combination shape. Each shape is to be connected to the other.
  • Students independently physically move through their design.
  • Students link their design with a partner’s design and move through the combined patterns.
  • Collect designs for assessment, display and/or visual arts activity.

Consolidation (Approximately 25 minutes)

Dance Study #2 – Space

  • Assign a creative dance study that incorporates the different spatial elements of levels, direction, and floor patterns.
  • Students explore movement within their groups and create the dance study.
  • Videotape students’ movement phrase while students share their work with the class.
  • Lead the class in a guided observational discussion session.
  • Suggestions for consolidation activities are as follows:
    • Community circle discussion
    • Journal entry
    • Self-reflection of process so far

Lesson 4: Foundation Element – TIME

Description

Auditory stimuli will be presented to explore and expand students’ creative thinking skills and physical movement vocabulary. Students will apply problem solving and cooperative learning skills to develop their understanding of Time.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the ability to explore rhythm in movement

Materials

  • Variety of percussive instruments (whistle, tambourine, drum, voice)

Minds On (Approximately 15 minutes)

  • Students lie on floor with eyes closed, find their pulse (e.g. neck, heart) and use the other hand to tap out the rhythm of their pulse.
  • Students sit across from a partner on the floor and count aloud:
    • slap thighs, clap hands, clap hands with partner, counting 1,2,3;
    • slap thighs, hold, clap hands with partner, counting 1,2,3;
    • slap thighs, clap hands, hold, counting 1,2,3.
  •  Students repeat exercise without counting:
    • clapping each other’s body on count 2, (without counting);
    • clapping each other’s body on count 1, (without counting).
  • Students stand and scatter throughout the room and clap out a 3/4 metre or pulse in unison e.g. 1, 2, 3, 1, 2, 3.
  • The teacher walks throughout the space and in between students, clapping counter rhythms or using different sound-making tools (e.g., tambourine, whistle, voice) to try to change the student’s rhythm.
  • Students discuss their ability to maintain the rhythm assigned in spite of the distractions.

Action! (Approximately 45 minutes)

Rhythmic Exploration

  • Assign a 3/4 movement phrase (e.g. step-hop-clap; hop-clap-stamp). Students do the following exercises with the phrase, without stopping between each:
    • do movement phrase accenting the first beat
    • do movement phrase accenting the third beat
    • do movement phrase accenting the second beat
  • Place students in groups of three and asks each group to create three silent actions to form a pattern which is repetitive:
    • group 1 does movement phrase accenting the second movement;
    • group 2 does movement phrase accenting the first movement;
    • group 3 does movement phrase accenting the third movement;
    • groups move towards each other towards the center of the room;
    • all groups scatter and intermingle, maintaining their assigned accented movement.

Tempo Exploration

  • Introduce dance and music terminology (i.e. adagio, allegro, andante, presto, tempo)
  • Assign a 3/4 movement phrase i.e. counts 1–2 slide, count 3 hop; count 1–2 step, count 3 hop
  • Establish a beat and vary the tempo of the beat with different songs.
  • Students adjust movement phrase to various tempos.
  • Students discuss how tempo affects a movement.
  • Students to do the following exercises:
    • 16 counts of “X” with the accent down into floor (e.g., small jumps);
    • 16 counts of “X” with the accent up, (i.e. lift up);
    • 8 counts of “X” with variations of the accents;
    • 8 counts of a leg and or arm movement with the accent in, (i.e. closing);
    • 8 counts of leg and or arm movement with the accent out,  (i.e. exploding out);
    • 8 counts of leg and or arm movement with variations of the accents.

Consolidation (Approximately 10 minutes)

Let’s Talk And Write About It

  • Students discuss and write in their journals (blogs, scrapbooks, etc) the following questions:
  1. What do you need to physically do to accommodate the change of accents?
  2. What dance/music terms are used to describe time, speed, very fast, very slow, soft, loud, quick and sharp?

Lesson 5: Foundation Element – ENERGY (DYNAMICS)

Description

A variety of visual and auditory stimuli will be presented to explore and expand students’ creative thinking and physical movement vocabulary. Students will write a poem based on the energy words. Students will apply problem solving and cooperative learning skills to explore the element of Energy.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate an understanding of movement dynamics

Materials

  • Prepare energy scale cards of energy action words (Laban) and obtain set of coloured markers, blank paper

Minds On (Approximately 10 minutes)

Exploring Dynamics Through a Physical Journey

  • This is an exercise in which the students physically interpret an arduous physical journey. Guide them through examples, (e.g. rope bridge over a crevice, crawling through the jungle, shooting the rapids, fording a stream etc.

Action! (Approximately 50 minutes)

Laban Action Words

  • Provide a light to strong intensity scale to chart Laban energy action words (e.g. punch, press, dab, glide, flick, float, slash, wring):
    • Students organize and categorize energy action words providing rationale for decisions (words can be on sticky notes, cue cards, paper, etc).
    • Lead students through a guided movement exploration of the energy action words.
    • Divide class into groups. Each group selects and combines six energy action words and creates a movement phrase which becomes each group’s template.
    • Lead the groups through a guided movement exploration verbally cuing and changing the dynamic quality: percussive, sustained, vibratory, suspension, swing, collapse, punch, press, dab.
    • Students draw a floor pattern on paper including using two straight lines and a curved line. The lines must be connected and indicate a beginning and an ending point.
    • Students choose three energy action words (i.e. punch, press, dab, glide, flick, float, slash, wring) and designate a different energy action word to each section of the pattern drawn.
    • Students practise the movement phrases.
  • The teacher uses an observational checklist or anecdotal notes to record progress as students work. 

Consolidation (Approximately 15 minutes)

  • Students brainstorm energy action words and write a poem with them in their notebook or journal.

Lesson 6: Foundation Element - RELATIONSHIP

Description

Concepts will be presented to explore and expand students’ creative thinking skills and physical movement vocabulary. Students will apply problem solving and cooperative learning skills to create a dance study based on the element of Relationship.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the ability to relate to other dancers and objects

Minds On (Approximately 10 minutes)

Partnered Stretches

  • Students, in partners, face each other and hold one wrist tightly
    • While continuing to hold tightly, pull away from each other, finding a place of mutual balance; this balance can be on both feet, symmetrical or asymmetrical, being sure to relax necks and shoulders
    • Once balance is achieved, allow gravity to stretch each body fully by holding this relaxed balance position as long as is comfortable
    • Explore different balances so that a variety of stretches is achieved

Action! (Approximately 50 minutes)

Face to Face Mirroring

  • Students are partnered, facing each other, arm’s length apart. One is leader, one is follower:
    • The leader moves on the spot slowly, using a variety of body parts to lead with
    • The task of the follower is to stay exactly in synchronization with the leader
  • Variations: switch who is leading and who is following, change partners often, challenge the students to stay together without a designated leader or follower, both people initiating movements.

Human Sculptures

  • Students in partners: one becomes the clay and the other the sculptor. The clay has closed eyes.
    • The sculptor shapes the clay into an interesting shape by firm but gentle “strokes” along the body of the clay, indicating direction (i.e. along the arms, legs, back, shoulders, head of the clay).
    • There is no talking allowed. Music is played.
    • The students must evolve a way of communicating through the touches.
  • Students each experience being both clay and sculptor, challenging them to be “intelligent” clay. Intelligent clay never stops moving. It has an intelligence of its own that inspires it to keep moving until it receives an “instruction” to change that movement through the touches of the sculptor.
  • Students move to music. The sculptor and clay become responsive to each other, beginning to dance a duet as they work to communicate and understand each other (call and response form).

Focus

  • Lead students in a guided movement exploration developing the concept of focus (i.e. towards, away, from, direct and indirect).
  • Repeat each of the following oral cues 3–4 times and students move accordingly:
    • focus on an object in the classroom and move directly towards the object;
    • focus on an object in the classroom and move directly away from the object;
    • focus on an object in the classroom and move indirectly towards the object;
    • focus on an object in the classroom and move indirectly away from the object.

Secret Partner

  • Students in scatter formation are guided to:
    • Select a secret partner without giving away whom they have selected
    • Mill about the space, filling the space, always keeping their silent partner within their sight, never giving away whom it is they are partnering
    • Move as far away as possible from their secret partner
    • Move as closely as possible to their secret partner without looking at them and, if possible, without giving away whom it is they are moving closely too
    • Choose a second secret partner and talk them through the exercise again
    • Arrange themselves without talking so that they form an equilateral triangle with their two secret partners. The triangle can be any size but they must be the same distance from each other in a triangle shape
  • The task is accomplished when everyone is standing still. This may take a considerable amount of time if people keep moving. Point out how the movement of one person affects the movement of many others, depending on the pattern in which they are connected. Discuss how this spatial relationship and connectivity can be used in composition.

Consolidation (Approximately 15 minutes)

Dance Study #5 – Relationship

  • Assign a creative dance study that incorporates the different elements of partnering and focus.
  • Students explore movement within their groups and create the dance study.
  • Lead the class in a guided observational discussion session.

Lesson 7: Stimuli for Improvisation

Description

Students will be exposed to a variety of visual, tactile, auditory and olfactory stimuli as a source for the creative process. Through guided exploration and improvisation, students will move spontaneously and create a link between the concrete and the abstract.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the elements of dance while exploring various stimuli

Materials

  • two single visual stimuli
  • three groupings of visual stimuli – four to five pictures, posters, books
  • four to five examples of tactile stimuli
  • four to five examples of auditory stimuli
  • four to five examples of olfactory stimuli (scent).

Minds On (Approximately 10 minutes)

Objects to Stimulate Creativity

  • Introduce one visual stimulus (e.g., statue, intricate pitcher, driftwood, rag doll) and direct students to silently walk around and without touching the stimulus, observe its features (i.e. lines, energy, dimension, colour).
  • Students independently interpret with their bodies, the features of three different objects observed, one at a time. Each interpretation must move through a phrase of counts, (e.g., 7, 8,11) so that the body is not static.
  • Students discuss the following questions:
  • How easy and/or difficult was it to create a movement phrase based on an inanimate object?
  • What made it easy and/or difficult for you?

Action! (Approximately 50 minutes)

Groupings

  • Divide class into groups that correspond with the number of stimuli:
    • Stimuli Group A: consists of three different toys = Group of three students
    • Stimuli Group B: consists of four different hats = Group of four students
    • Stimuli Group C: consists of five different sizes of bottles = Group of five students
  • Students physically interpret the features of the stimuli grouping observed.
  • Students must keep their interpretation moving.
  • Repeat the guided exploration process using:
    • A: pictures (e.g. peoples’ faces, children playing, a city scape, bouquet of flowers;)
    • B: tactile stimuli (e.g. cheese grater, piece of fun fur, rubber ball, shaving brush, bag of cold spaghetti, bread dough;)
    • C: olfactory stimuli (e.g. spices, empty bleach bottle, fresh branch of pine needles, perfume, crushed garlic, vinegar;)
  • D. auditory stimuli (e.g. single sound effects – gunshot, scream, glass breaking; nature sounds, – waves, birds, wind; music – single instrument, horn, maraca, drum, Baroque chamber music, instrumental music from different cultures, Rhapsody in Blue, Beethoven’s Fifth.)

Consolidation (Approximately 15 minutes)

  • Students present, share and observe one another’s movement studies.
  • Students discuss questions and record reflections on the following questions:
  1. Is music necessary to compose dance? What is your rationale?
  2. What restrictions and/or freedoms does each stimuli present?

Lessons 8-12: Composing with the Elements

Description

Students will have the opportunity to integrate and demonstrate their understanding of the fundamental elements explored by creating a longer dance composition. Students will be introduced to the concept of disciplined rehearsal practices, work attitudes and habits and the refinement of polishing of their movement for presentation. Emphasis will be on the integration of movement, composition and presentation skills.

Learning Goals

  • Demonstrate the application of the elements of dance in a composition

Materials

Minds On (Approximately 10 minutes)

Setting The Parameters.

  • Divide class into three or more groups and discuss the assignment (e.g. create a short dance composition of 2-3 minutes in length, and the evaluation rubric)
  • Students may bring in their own stimuli to create dance. The following elements of dance must be included and clearly visible:
    • Body – combination and variety of body shapes;
    • Space – a combination of 6 straight and/or curved lines; include level and focus variations;
    • Time – a minimum of 4 different uses of time;
    • Energy – minimum of 3 different energy actions varying intensity and quality of the movements.
    • Relationship – minimum of 3 different relationships with dancers and stimuli
  • Allow students to rehearse and explore, taking teacher, peer and self-assessment feedback into account. 

Action! (Approximately 50 minutes)

The Dance Artist At Work

  • Students create a dance work within the framework of the designated criteria.
  • Students:
    • Complete the dance composition work.
    • Rehearse and polish dance work.
    • Receive verbal and/or written feedback from teacher and peers
    • Edit and polish work

Performance

  • Students present, share and observe each group’s dance work.
  • Videotape each group’s presentation of the assignment.

Consolidation (Approximately 25 minutes)

Self-Evaluation

  • Present the videotaping of students’ dance works twice.
  • Students evaluate themselves and record on sheet provided.

Teacher Talk

Lead students in discussion/reflection of their dance work, the process and their accomplishments.  

Appendix: Resources

1. Blom, Lynne Anne and Chaplin, L. Tarin. The Moment of Movement – Dance Improvisation. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988.

2. Cheney, Gay. Basic Concepts in Modern Dance – A Creative Approach. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton Book Company, Publishers, 1989.

3. Dance, Film and Video Guide. New Jersey: Princeton Book Co., 1991.

4. Dance Ontario Directory–1999. Toronto: Dance Ontario, 1999.

5. Edwards, Harvey. The Art of Dance. Boston, Toronto: Little, Brown/A Bulfinch Press Book, 1989.

6. Eisner, Elliot W. The Art of Educational Evaluation – A Personal View. London and Philadelphia: The Palmer Press, 1985.

7. Eisner, Elliott W. The Enlightened Eye–Qualitative Inquiry and the Enhancement of Educational Practice. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company, 1991.

8. Ewing, William A. Breaking Bounds: The Dance Photography of Lois Greenfield. San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1992.

9. Franklin, Eric. Dance Imagery for Technique and Performance. Windsor: Human Kinetics, 1996.

10. Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind–The Theory of Multiple Intelligence. U.S.A.: Basic Books, 1983.

11. Harris, Lesley E. “Copyright and Dance Editorial”. Dance in Canada, Spring, 1989.

12. Humphrey, Doris. The Art of Making Dances. New York: Grove Press Inc., 1959.

13. Kurath, Gertrude Prokosch. Dance and Song Rituals of Six Nations Reserve, Ontario: National Museum of Canada Bulletin 220, Ottawa, 1968.

14. Morgan, Barbara.. Martha Graham: Sixteen Dances in Photographs. New York: Morgan & Morgan Inc., 1980.

15. Penrod, James and Plastino, Janice Gudde.. The Dancer Prepares: Modern Dance For Beginners. Toronto: Mayfield Publishing Company, 1998.

16. Schrader, Constance A. A Sense of Dance: Exploring Your Movement Potential. Windsor: Human Kinetics, 1996.

17. Smith, Jacqueline M. Dance Composition & Practical Guide for Teachers. Princeton: Princeton Book Company, 1987.

18. The Ethnocultural Directory of Canada. Montreal: Monchanin Cross–Cultural Centre, 1990.

19. The Metropolitan Toronto School Board. DanceMetro: A Curriculum Handbook Grade 7 – OAC. Toronto: The Metropolitan Toronto School Board, 1994.

20. Videos: Dancing, 1993. Programs 1 – 8: ISBN 0-7800-13409.

21. Von Tiedemann, Cylla. The Dance Photography of Cylla Von Tiedemann. Ottawa: National Arts Centre, Toronto: McClelland & Stewart, 1991.